Static – a Theoretical Mechanics, statics

Static – the science of methods quantify the interaction forces between the bodies. These forces are responsible for maintaining balance, body movement or change their shape. In everyday life, you can see many different examples every day. Movement and change shape are critical to the functionality of both artificial and natural objects.
Static – a Theoretical Mechanics, statics
The concept of static
Fundamentals of statics were laid more than 2200 years ago when ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes and other scientists of the time learning the properties of amplifying and the emergence of simple mechanisms such as lever and axle. Statics – Mechanics section that deals with the forces that act on the body at rest provided balance.

It is a branch of physics that makes possible analytical and graphical procedures to identify and describe these unknown forces. The “static” (physics) play an important role in many areas of engineering, mechanical, civil, aviation and bioengineering, which deal with different implications forces. When the body is at rest or moving at a uniform speed, then it comes to this field of physics. Static – the study of the body in balance.
Methods and results of this branch of science were particularly useful in the design of buildings, bridges and dams, as well as cranes and similar mechanical devices. In order to calculate the size of structures and equipment, architects and engineers must first determine the forces acting on them interrelated parts.

Static – a Theoretical Mechanics, statics
Axioms of statics
Static – a branch of physics that studies the conditions under which the mechanical and other systems are in a state that does not change with time. This branch of physics based on five basic axioms:

1. A solid in a state of static equilibrium, if it there are two forces that have the same intensity, lie on a line of action and are directed in opposite directions along the same line.
2. Solid body will be in a static state as long as it is not influenced by external force or system of forces.
3. resultant of two forces acting in the same material point is the vector sum of the two forces. This axiom is subject to the principle of vector summation.
4. Two interacting bodies react to each other two forces equal in intensity in opposite directions along the same line of action. This axiom is also called the principle of action and reaction.
5. If the deformed body is in a state of static balance is not violated if the physical body remains in solid state. This axiom is also called the principle of hardening.
Static – a Theoretical Mechanics, statics
Mechanics and its sections
Physics in Greek (physikos – “natural” and “physis” – “nature”) literally means the science that deals with the nature. It covers all known laws and the properties of matter and the forces acting on it, including gravity, heat, light, magnetism, electricity and other forces that are able to change the basic characteristics of objects. One section of science is mechanics, including such important departments, as statics and dynamics and kinematics.

Mechanics – a branch of physics that deals with the study of forces, objects or bodies that are at rest or moving. This is one of the greatest actors in the field of science and technology. The task of static include a study of the state bodies under the influence of various forces. Kinematics – a branch of physics (mechanics), which studies the movement of objects regardless of the forces that cause movement.

Engineering Mechanics: Statics
Mechanics – a physical science which examines the behavior of bodies under the action of forces. There are 3 categories of mechanics: rigid bodies, deformable bodies and fluids. Solid body – a body that is not deformed by the forces. Theoretical Mechanics (Statics – Mechanics of rigid body) also includes dynamic, which, in turn, is divided into kinematics and kinetics.
Mechanics of deformable bodies dealing with the distribution of power within the body and are caused due to this strain. These internal forces cause some tension in the body, which ultimately could lead to a change in the material. These issues are studied in courses on strength of materials strength of materials.

Fluid mechanics – a chapter of Mechanics, which deals with the distribution of power within liquids or gases. Liquids are widely used in engineering. They can be classified as neszhymaemye or squeezable. Fields of application are hydraulics, aerospace and many others.
Static – a Theoretical Mechanics, statics
The concept of dynamics
Dynamics deals with power and movement. The only way to change the movement of the body – is to use force. Along with the power dynamics studies of other physical concepts, including the following: energy, momentum, collisions, center of gravity, torque and moment of inertia.

Static – a Theoretical Mechanics, statics
Statics and dynamics are completely opposite position. Dynamics – the doctrine of the body are not in balance, while there is acceleration. Kinetics is studying the forces that cause motion or forces resulting from motion. Unlike such thing as statics, kinematics – the study of body movement, which does not take into account the fact that it follows the movement. Sometimes it is called “the geometry of motion.”
Static – a Theoretical Mechanics, statics
Kinematic principles commonly used for analysis to determine the position, speed and acceleration in different parts of the equipment during operation. Kinematics considering the motion of a point, body and system of bodies without considering the causes of motion. The movement described vector quantities, such as displacement, velocity and acceleration along with an indication of the reference system. Different kinematics problems solved using the equations of motion.
Static – a Theoretical Mechanics, statics
Mechanics – Statics: Fundamental value
History mechanics has more than one century. Basic principles of statics have been developed long ago. All sorts of levers, inclined planes and other principles were needed in times of early civilizations to build, such huge structures like the pyramids.
Static – a Theoretical Mechanics, statics
The fundamental values of the mechanics are length, time, mass and strength. The first three are called absolute, not dependent on each other. Strength is not an absolute value, because it is associated with weight changes and speed.

Length – a value used to describe the position of a point in space relative to another point. This distance is called the standard unit of length. The generally accepted standard units of length is the meter. This standard was formed and evolved over the years. At first it was one ten millionth of the quadrant of the earth’s surface, through which the measure was quite difficult. October 20, 1983, the meter was defined as the length of the path traveled by light in a vacuum 1/299792458 seconds.
Time – is a certain interval between the two events. The generally accepted standard unit of time is second. The second was originally defined as 1/864 middle period of the Earth’s rotation around its axis. In 1956 a second definition was improved and amounted to 1/31556 time required for a complete turnover, which carries the Earth around the sun.
Static – a Theoretical Mechanics, statics
Weight – a property of matter. It can be seen as the quantity of a substance contained in the body. This category determines the effect of gravity on the body and resistance to change in motion. This resistance to change of motion is called inertia, which is the result of body weight. The common unit of mass is the kilogram.
Static – a Theoretical Mechanics, statics
Power – this original unit, but the unit is very important to study mechanics. It is often defined as the action of one body to another, and may or may not be the result of direct contact between the bodies. Gravitational and electromagnetic forces are examples of the impact of such an outcome. There are two principles of the forces that seek to change the traffic system and which tend to deformities. The basic unit of force is Newton in SI and the English pound system.
Static – a Theoretical Mechanics, statics
The equation of equilibrium
Static assumes that the items in question are completely solid. The sum of all forces acting on the body at rest should be zero, that is participating forces balance each other and there should be no tendency for forces that can turn the body around any axis. These conditions are independent of each other, and their expression in mathematical form is the so-called equation of balance.
Static – a Theoretical Mechanics, statics
There are three equilibrium equation, so only three unknown forces can be calculated. When unknown forces will be more than three, it means that the components in the structure of the machine or slightly more than necessary to maintain certain loads, or that there was more restrictive than necessary to keep the body from moving.
Such unwanted components or excessive restrictions are called (for example, a table on four legs has a surplus), and the system of forces is statically indeterminate. The number of equations available in static, limited, since any solid remains firm under any circumstances, regardless of shape and size.

Where are the mountains of Cordillera? Cordillera Mountains: Description

Cordillera – the mountains, a huge system which occupies the western outskirts of the continent of North America. They stretch for about 7 thousand. Km. Cordillera – the mountains, a great variety of natural conditions. A number of features are characterized and it defines their uniqueness among other mountain systems of the planet.
Where are the mountains of Cordillera? Cordillera Mountains: Description
Overview of Cordillera
Where are the mountains of Cordillera? Mostly they learned in submerydyonalnom direction. Within five orotektonycheskyh zones of different ages formed these mountains. Cordillera are composed of a significant share of the Highlands (25-3 thousand. Meters or more above sea level). They have active volcanism and high seismicity. The great length of the mountains from north to south has led to the presence here of many spectra of altitudinal zonation. Cordillera – the mountains, formed at the junction between the lithosphere plates. The boundary between them almost coincides with the line of the coast.

The composition of the Cordilleras
The third part of the entire continent occupies a mountain fold-hlybovaya system. It has a width of 800-1600 km. The structure consists of mountain plateau mizhhirnyh troughs, ridges and volcanic plateaus and mountains. Young deformation, volcanic, denudation experienced Cordillera, which determined their present form and zamaskyrovalo many geological structures that appeared earlier. A heterogeneous mountain system in both cross and longitudinal direction.
Read more about the structure of the Cordilleras
Asymmetric structure surface of the continent, where the Cordillera mountains. They occupy the western part, on the east – low mountains and vast plains. The western part is located at an altitude of 1700 meters, and east – 200-300 m. 720 meters is the average height of the continent.

Cordillera – the mountains which are composed of a series of mountain curves, which are extracted mainly in the direction from northwest to southeast. On p. McKenzie, Mts. Brooks, Rocky Mountains is the eastern arc. Intermittent are formed from the inner plateau and plateau located west of these ranges. 1-2 thousand. Meters of their height. Cordillera – the mountains include the following highlands and plateaus, highlands Yukon and Columbia Plateau Plateau of British Columbia, the Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, a volcanic plateau and plateau Mexican highlands (inner part). Most of them are alternating hollows, ridges and flat table surface.
The highest mountain
Where are the mountains of Cordillera? Cordillera Mountains: Description
Cordillera of the western part of the system marked the highest ridges. This Aleutskyy Range, Ridge, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Range. The latter reaches a height of 6193 meters. It McKinley represented in the photo above the highest mountain. Cordillera – a system that includes the western part and the Cascade Mountains, Coast Mountains of Canada, Western Sierra Madre and the Sierra Nevada and Transverse Volcanic Sierra of the located here Pico de Orizaba (5,700 meters), etc.
To the west of their reduced height. Cordillera – the mountains, which smoothly pass in the flat part of the continent. Her take on the event or the Bay (California, Puget Sound, Cook) or plain (California valley, valley. Uyllamett). This coast continent formed ridges St. Elias, Chuhachskym, Kenayskym, island ridge of Canada and the Coast ranges USA. Chains Cordillera south of Mexican Plateau bifurcate. East rejected one of them, forming islands of the West Indies and underwater mountain ranges, then goes into the Venezuelan Andes. The second half extends through the Panama and Teuantepekskyy isthmuses to the Colombian Andes.

Why is the diversity of mountain terrain?
It is associated with various areas under the land and the history of their development. Not immediately formed in its present form the mainland. Cordillera Mountains in the current form emerged through various processes occurring at different times in the continent.

For Lavrentyyskoy high, said the oldest geological structures in the landscape is characterized surface alignment, the formation of which began in the early Paleozoic. Upland modern wavy surface resistance caused different species to denudation and uneven tectonic movement. Lowering the central part of the covering caused Quaternary glaciation, because of which formed the modern Hudson Bay basin. In addition, under his influence the accumulation of water-ice and moraine deposits that formed the type of terrain (moraine-hilly).
Large and central plains are the type of reservoir. Under the influence of denudation processes in different places, depending on the characteristics of occurrence of different rocks formed kuэstovye ridge (Great Lakes), stepped plateau (the Great Plains), middle and lowland erosion (Ouachita Mountains, Ozark).
It is the most difficult terrain and Cordillera. Band compression crust is crossed by numerous faults, starting from the ocean floor and end on land. Not yet completed horoobrazovatelnyy process. These are volcanic eruptions (eg, Popocatepetl and Orizaba) and earthquakes that occur here occasionally.

Where are the mountains of Cordillera? Cordillera Mountains: Description
As you know, many different minerals can be found wherever there are mountains. Cordillera – is no exception. This vast reserves of ferrous and nonferrous metals. With non-metallic can identify oil which is in mizhhirnyh troughs. Brown coal reserves are in the region of the Rocky Mountains (their internal basins).
Characteristic climate continue description of the mountains. Cordillera are on the way oceanic air masses. Because of this, in the east dramatically weakens the influence of the ocean. This climatic feature Cordillera displayed on soil and vegetation, the development of modern glaciation, altitudinal zonation. Elongation north-south mountain ranges causes temperature differences in summer and winter. In winter it is between -24 ° C (near Alaska) to +24 ° C (Mexico, south of the country). In summer the temperature ranges from +4 to +20 ° C.
In the north-west falls most rainfall. The fact that this part of the Cordillera is located towards the western winds blowing from the Pacific Ocean. Precipitation here – about 3000 mm. The least is moist tropical latitudes, as the oceanic air masses were not achieved. Low rainfall also explains how cold that runs along the coast. The interior Cordillera highlands also not very moist. Mountains located within the temperate, subarctic, tropical and subtropical climate zones.
The rivers and lakes of the Cordillera
Where are the mountains of Cordillera? Cordillera Mountains: Description
A significant part of the western rivers of the continent it originated in the Cordilleras. Mainly their food is snow and ice, the summer flood accounts. These mountain rivers, steep. The largest of them – the Colorado and Columbia. Or Glacial lakes are of volcanic origin Cordillera. On internal plateaus are shallow saline water bodies. It remains existed here long ago, during the humid climate, large lakes.

Very diverse flora of the Cordillera. Coniferous forests with a unique view are up to 40 ° C. w. For species composition they are very rich. Spruce, Chamaecyparis, fir, cedar (red cedar) are typical representatives. Pitch pine trees reaching 80 meters. Between them virtually no woody undergrowth. However, various shrubs grow here in abundance. Much ground cover of moss and ferns. In coniferous forests by driving south begin to come across the sugar pine, white fir, yellow pine. Sequoia evergreen appears further south. As increasing dryness, south of 42 ° C. w., bushes changing forests. They juniper, heather, and their height is usually not more than two meters. You can sometimes find different types of evergreen oak. Moisture climate in the interior of the Cordillera decreases. They are characterized by dry forests and areas solyankovyh and wormwood deserts. Prepared rain covered slopes to an altitude of 1200 m evergreen forests.
Animals that live in the mountains of the Cordillera
Where are the mountains of Cordillera? Cordillera Mountains: Description
Where are the Cordillera mountains, you can find grizzly brown bear – a major predator of the continent of North America. Bear baribal has long black fur, resides in the southwest of the system. It destroys the cattle and spoil the crops. There are many lynxes, foxes, wolves. In the southern mountains often are arthropods, lizards, snakes. In addition, there lives otrutozub – the only legless venomous lizard. Large animals in places where people live or destroyed or extremely rare. Bison and pronghorn (antelope rare) saved only thanks to the current national programs in North America. Only in reserves can be seen today rich fauna.